hydrostatics n : study of the mechanical properties of fluids that are not in motion
- the scientific
study of fluids at rest, especially when under
- 1774, Dr Samuel Johnson, Preface to the Works of the English
Poets, J. Nichols, Volume II, Page 30,
- "to estimate his skill in hydrostatistics or astronomy; ..."
- 1774, Dr Samuel Johnson, Preface to the Works of the English Poets, J. Nichols, Volume II, Page 30,
Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the science of fluids at rest, and is a sub-field within fluid mechanics. The term usually refers to the mathematical treatment of the subject. It embraces the study of the conditions under which fluids are at rest in stable equilibrium. The use of fluid to do work is called hydraulics, and the science of fluids in motion is fluid dynamics.
Pressure in fluids at restDue to the inability to resist deformation, fluids exert pressure normal to any contacting surface. In addition, when the fluid is at rest that pressure is isotropic, i.e. it acts with equal magnitude in all directions. This characteristic allows fluids to transmit force through the length of pipes or tubes, i.e., a force applied to a fluid in a pipe is transmitted, via the fluid, to the other end of the pipe. If the forces are not balanced, the fluid will move in the direction of the resulting force.
This concept was first formulated, in a slightly extended form, by the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal in 1647 and would later be known as Pascal's law. This law has many important applications in hydraulics.
Hydrostatic pressureConsidering a small cube of liquid at rest below a free surface, pressure caused by the height of the liquid above must be balanced by a resisting pressure in this small cube. For an infinitely small cube the stress is the same in all directions and liquid weight or equivalent pressure can be expressed as
- \ P = \rho g h +P_a
The ideal gas law predicts that, for a gas of constant temperature, T, its density, ρ, will vary with height, h, as:
- \ \rho\ (h)=\rho\ (0) e^
A solid body immersed in a fluid will have an upward buoyant force acting on it equal to the weight of displaced fluid. This is due to the hydrostatic pressure in the fluid.
In the case of a container ship, for instance, its weight force is balanced by a buoyant force from the displaced water, allowing it to float. If more cargo is loaded onto the ship, it would sit lower in the water - displacing more water and thus receive a higher buoyant force to balance the increased weight force.
A floating object is stable if it tends to restore itself to an equilibrium position after a small displacement. For example, floating objects will generally have vertical stability, as if the object is pushed down slightly, this will create a greater buoyant force, which, unbalanced against the weight force will push the object back up.
Rotational stability is of great importance to floating vessels. Given a small angular displacement, the vessel may return to its original position (stable), move away from its original position (unstable), or remain where it is (neutral).
Rotational stability depends on the relative lines of action of forces on an object. The upward buoyant force on an object acts through the centre of buoyancy, being the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid. The weight force on the object acts through its center of gravity. An object will be stable if an angular displacement moves the line of action of these forces to set up a 'righting moment'. See also Angle of loll.
Liquids-fluids with free surfaces
Liquids can have free surfaces at which they interface with gases, or with a vacuum. In general, the lack of the ability to sustain a shear stress entails that free surfaces rapidly adjust towards an equilibrium. However, on small length scales, there is an important balancing force from surface tension.
Surface tension effects
When liquids are constrained in vessels whose dimensions are small, compared to the relevant length scales, surface tension effects become important leading to the formation of a meniscus through capillary action. This capillary action has profound consequences for biological systems as it is part of one of the two driving mechanisms of the flow of water in plant xylem, the transpirational pull.
Without surface tension, drops would not be able to form. The dimensions and stability of drops are determined by surface tension.
hydrostatics in Bosnian: Statika fluida
hydrostatics in Catalan: Hidrostàtica
hydrostatics in Czech: Hydrostatika
hydrostatics in German: Hydrostatik
hydrostatics in Estonian: Hüdrostaatika
hydrostatics in Modern Greek (1453-): Υδροστατική
hydrostatics in Spanish: Hidrostática
hydrostatics in French: Hydrostatique
hydrostatics in Korean: 유체정역학
hydrostatics in Croatian: Hidrostatički tlak
hydrostatics in Indonesian: Statika fluida
hydrostatics in Italian: Idrostatica
hydrostatics in Hebrew: הידרוסטטיקה
hydrostatics in Lithuanian: Hidrostatika
hydrostatics in Dutch: Hydrostatica
hydrostatics in Norwegian: Hydrostatikk
hydrostatics in Norwegian Nynorsk: Hydrostatikk
hydrostatics in Polish: Hydrostatyka
hydrostatics in Portuguese: Hidrostática
hydrostatics in Russian: Гидростатика
hydrostatics in Simple English: Fluid statics
hydrostatics in Slovak: Hydrostatika
hydrostatics in Slovenian: Hidrostatika
hydrostatics in Serbian: Статика флуида
hydrostatics in Finnish: Hydrostatiikka
hydrostatics in Swedish: Hydrostatik
hydrostatics in Tamil: பாய்ம நிலையியல்
hydrostatics in Vietnamese: Thủy tĩnh học
hydrostatics in Venetian: Idrostàtega
hydrostatics in Chinese: 流体静力学
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